The nomenclature and concept of Waste Disposal Plants (WDF Plants) is often misused and applied to facilities where the processes of management of incoming waste are limited to orderly storage of waste, sometimes enriched with elements of biogas management or recovery of some recyclables.
In addition, in most cases, attempts to recover recyclables take place without appropriate technical measures and under questionable health and safety conditions.
Interchangeably are often used such terms as:
- Waste Management Plants (WMPs),
- Waste Disposal Plants (WDFPs),
- Waste Treatment Plants (WTPs).
Waste Disposal Plants are facilities where waste is recovered, processed and disposed of in an orderly manner using appropriate technological procedures and with the help of technical means that guarantee the safety of people and the environment.
Due to the technology used, installations of this type may also take names such as:
- Mechanical-Biological Waste Processing Plant (called MBP for short),
- Waste Composting Facility,
- Anaerobic Waste Treatment Plant,
- Thermal Waste Disposal Plant (incineration plant, gasification plant),
- Alternative Fuel Production Plant (waste sorting plants with features that allow separation and packaging of the combustible fraction of waste).
Of course, it is impossible here to list all possible word combinations, neologisms and linguistic borrowings that are used to describe the specifics of a particular installation.
The education and experience of our design team, as well as the systematic improvement of its competence, thanks to its presence at the most important industry events (environmental fairs at home and abroad), participation in conferences and symposiums, cooperation with scientific centers and cooperation with companies in the environmental sector from abroad, mean that we can offer our customers proven technological solutions using the most modern methods and tools. When designing Waste Utilization Plants (WUO), we take into account the ecological and economic efficiency of the solutions, the client's preferences, the state of progress of the project, the specifics of the environment, etc.
Individual approach and many years of experience guarantee that the project will be effective, customized and technologically flexible.
The high level of competence of our staff, designers, consultants and business partners, allows us to use a range of technological solutions in the design of Waste Utilization Plants (WUU).
We can offer our clients comprehensive design and study studies:
- Mechanical and Biological Waste Processing (MBP) plants,
- Thermal Waste Disposal Plants (incineration plant, gasification plant),
- Mechanical, manual, automatic and combined sorting plants including alternative fuel production facilities.
Each Waste Disposal Plant consists of several sections that should form a technological whole. The system solutions adopted in AK NOVA, based on modularity of solutions, make the individual sections an integral part of the whole while maintaining functional autonomy at the same time.
This solution is intended to, on the one hand, enable the operation of individual technological sections independently (or with a low degree of dependence) on the operation of the other - process parts of the plant (e.g. in cases of failure of individual machines), and, on the other hand, allow for future development of the plant in terms of emerging technological innovations.
This manifests itself in such a composition of technological solutions and spatial arrangement, which allow for a multitude of potential technological schemes without the need to replace technological equipment.
An example is the selection of mechanical sorting equipment, which allows for changes in the size of individual fractions already during the operation of the plant, or such a design of their collection systems so that it is possible to use different types of transport (containers, trailers, garbage cans, etc.). This requires a great deal of knowledge and experience, which we obtain, among other things, through cooperation with operating Waste Disposal Plants.
Depending on the adopted technology, efficiency, waste morphology and other factors, a waste disposal plant may consist of several or more sections:
- Weighing and registration section for delivered waste (electronic scales with computerized waste accounting system);
- waste reception platforms of the various technological departments of the plant (sorting plant, bulky waste dismantling point, composting plant, construction waste section, etc.) with preliminary inspection and selection;
- Mechanical sorting section, usually consisting of one or more screens. Depending on the type and amount of material to be sorted, drum, star, and shaker screens may be used;
- manual sorting section, usually implemented in sorting booths with their own ventilation and heating systems. Sorting in the booths can be positive ( selection of appropriate types of raw materials) or negative (removal of impurities). Sorting into individual fractions can also be implemented by automatic sorting equipment using optical sensors, magnetic sensors, eddy currents, etc..;
- baling (compacting) section of waste and raw materials. Part of the selected raw materials is baled to reduce transport costs. Depending on the required capacity and type of compacted waste, automatic, semi-automatic and manual systems with chamber, channel presses with different binding and crushing force can be used;
- The section of preparation of mass for biological treatment, which may consist of grinding equipment, sorting equipment (screens, separators), mixing equipment, dispensers, etc. The equipment depends on the capacity and the adopted technology for further processing;
- composting or fermentation section of the biological fraction. Disposal of biodegradable waste can be carried out in dozens of ways that differ fundamentally in the technology adopted (aerobic or anaerobic method) or detailed in the techniques used within the technology. Anaerobic technologies can be implemented through thermophilic and mesophilic methods (differing in process temperature), dry and wet (depending on the required hydration of the fraction in the digester), and different techniques of mixing (mechanical, pressure...), loading, emptying, biogas discharge, etc. can be used within a given method. On the other hand, aerobic-composting technologies can be implemented by static methods (by piling), quasi-static methods (aerated piles), dynamic methods (composting in various types of bioreactors). Each method uses different techniques from the simplest composting in static piles, through aeration systems, flipping, to various bioreactor designs (steel, concrete, plastic), with their own aeration and irrigation systems. All elements affect the plant's capacity, space requirements, utilities, transportation means, etc. AK NOVA designs bio-waste composting plants, using solutions adapted to the specifics of the area, customer preferences, functioning waste management system, etc. The selection of technology is a resultant of the latest available solutions, the experience of operators, the opinions of manufacturers, technologists and independent experts. Thanks to our constant presence at industry events (environmental fairs at home and abroad, conferences and symposiums), cooperation with scientific centers and cooperation with companies in the environmental sector from home and abroad, we can offer a whole range of solutions in the field of biodegradable waste transformation technologies;
- compost packaging section. Regardless of the technology adopted, the resulting product requires additional preparation before transfer to the end user or even before storage. The simplest variant is the use of a screen to separate the composted (fine) fraction from the fraction requiring further processing or intended for storage. In more elaborate systems, this section is supplemented by a set of equipment with ballistic and pneumatic separators for the separation of stones, plastics, glass, film, etc. Confectioning equipment (such as a compost bagging line) can also be used. The correct design of this section of the plant space and the appropriate selection of equipment greatly affect the success of the project;
- storage section of finished compost, the form of which depends on the requirements of the investor, the possibility and availability of space for development, plant equipment, etc. The compost warehouse can take the form of a paved earth yard, a concrete yard or a yard additionally equipped with concrete walls, which allows the storage of more material in a smaller space. When designing the size of individual facilities, do not forget about the anticipated equipment of means of transport and their capacity and lifting height. AK NOVA, thanks to its cooperation with leading manufacturers, helps its customers in the appropriate selection of means of transport;
- dismantling section of bulky waste. It usually consists of a yard and a cubicle facility, where manual dismantling of bulky items (furniture, household appliances, etc.) takes place. The basic equipment is hand-held power tools, containers, and in larger installations specialized equipment for shredding, pressing, washing, suction, etc..;
- shredding section for construction waste. It usually constitutes a yard with boxes for individual fractions and separated elements (glass, metal, plastics). The equipment is a shredder (or a set of shredders) often supplemented by a fractionation and separation system. When designing this fraction, it is important to keep in mind the spatial location of this section due to its acoustic nuisance and dust. The section can be equipped with screens to reduce the impact of the plant;
Each Waste Disposal Plant may also consist of other unlisted sections.
In addition, elements of technical infrastructure, accompanying facilities (warehouses, social facilities, etc.) are necessary for the proper functioning of the UAN.